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A text is readable ...

Readability is influenced by ...

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lesbarkeit, die

letter spacing zeichenabstand, der  
touching; tight; normal; wide klebend; eng; normal; weit  
line spacing zeilenabstand, der  
word spacing wortabstand, der  
upper case grossbuchstabe, der; versalie, die  
lower case kleinbuchstabe, der; minuskel, die  

Letter spacing

Four lines of text in sans serif with letterspacing from touching to normalLine spacing

Some paragraphs with decreasing amount of line spacing. At the bottom a pargraph all uppercase with tight line spacing

Word spacing

Upper paragraph with relatively large word spacing. Lower paragraph with normal word spacing, but tight ligne spacing

Upper and lower case

Type set in mixed case Type set in all upper case
Words set in uppercase and lowercase have more distinctive outline which enables the reader to recognise the words faster. Words set in all all caps have an even horizontal outline with letters of similar shape and size. Type set this way severely impairs reading – more so than any other legibility factor. Also it uses a significantly greater amount of space – as much as 35% – than text set in lowercase of the same size. WORDS SET IN UPPERCASE AND LOWERCASE HAVE MORE DISTINCTIVE OULINE WHCIH ENABLES THE READER TO RECOGNISE THE WORDS FASTER. WORDS SET IN ALL ALL CAPS HAVE AN EVEN HORIZONTAL OUTLINE WITH LETTERS OF SIMILAR SHAPE AND SIZE. TYPE SET THIS WAY SEVERELY IMPAIRS READING – MORE SO THAN ANY OTHER LEGIBILITY FACTOR. ALSO IT USES A SIGNIFICANTLY GREATER AMOUNT OF SPACE – AS MUCH AS 35% – THAN TEXT SET IN LOWERCASE OF THE SAME SIZE.

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Swiss publication Produktion+Print, Nr. 10, Oktober 1996. Definitions according to Duden / Wahrig / Langenscheidt.

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